state of trance

The Pack

Individual who has manages

A shaman can be described as an individual who has manages to acquire some access and influence in the spirits world. This is mostly achieved when the individual is in a state of trance during dances and rituals, healing process, or divination practices. Shamanism is concerned with the spirits of nature and a shaman is believed to interact with the spirits of elements, ancestors, and those of superior transpersonal (godlike) beings who act as helpers and guiders to humanity. The case that inspired Joseph Beuys work dubbed ‘the pack’ indicates some case of shamanic experience.state of trance

Volunteered to join the Luftwaffe in the WW2

Joseph Beuys had by 1940, when he was 19 years old, volunteered to join the Luftwaffe in the WW2. While on a mission three years later, he was involved in an air-crash where the pilot of the plane Beuys was in died instantly. However he survived and The Pack was inspired by his version of what transpired after the accident. It is said that that he was found lying unconscious in the snow by some tartars who carried him on a wooden sled to their village where they covered him with fat to keep him warm. The apparent smell of fat on waking up awakened the inner artist within him.state of trance

Incident inspired Beuys

This incident inspired Beuys to create a number of notable works of art among which is ‘the Pack’. This work consists of twenty wooden sleds appearing to spill of a Volkswagen bus. Each sled bears a rolled up felt blanket, a rope, a flashlight, and a mould of fat. The story as depicted in the art is a statement of his belief that humanity can survive if they cared for one another.state of trance

childhood education

Improving the Effectiveness of Programs for Bilingual Children’s Development

my immense passion

          Driven by my immense passion in childhood education, I noted that in the academic year 2013-2014, only fourteen percent of the students classified as English learners received bilingual instructions. After reviewing some of the bills that you have sponsored, I have also noted that you are a strong advocate for appropriate children education. Your career in early childhood education and great contributions in the Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies (LHHS) show your strong commitment to improving the quality of education for young children. As such, your remarkable experience and understanding of matters related to early childhood education make me certain that you will address or assist in dealing with some of the issues affecting education of bilingual children in our statechildhood education.

Educational demands

          I have noted with much concern that the policy system related to children education in Washington State is in a total disarray; hence, it cannot address the educational demands of bilingualchildren adequately. The existing policies are also inadequate to create functional programs addressing the challenges in the English learners’ area. Therefore, about 85% of student in need of bilingual education in Washington State do not get a chance to get it. Since the Washington state’s is highly diverse, and Multilanguage learning has been found to improve intelligence; it therefore, indicates that the issue affects almost every family in Washington. Hence, an immediate action is required to improve the policy system and the individual legislations to capture the high number of the students and families affected. For instance, the lack of most policies in Washington State to capture the need for improvement of social-emotional troubleshooting of English learners’ talents means that English learners in Washington State possess social-emotional deficiencies and lack enough skills for problem solving, which can be enhanced in the dual-classes.childhood education

Bilingual learning program

            Willie and Fishman (2014) observe that there exist three necessary adaptations for ensuring a bilingual learning program is successful: structural, language, and cultural adaptations. The scholars explain that structural adjustments are needed to ensure bilingual learning conforms to the needs of students and their families. In the study, teachers reported that instructing and coaching equipped them with tools required for executing bilingual class sessions. Being sensitive to language and cultural fit is also important when training and coaching in bilingual and bicultural environments. Addressing these issues will require balancing competing needs of adapting programs for English learners while ensuring fidelity to a support-based model in Washington State.childhood education

A robust model

          A robust model consisting of teachers’ training and weekly coaching as well as continuous technical assistance is critical in dual-language instruction. The bilingual school programs will require a strong involvement of executing grantees to be successful, with grantee managers requiring a parallel approach to development for broad enhancement. Additionally, restructuring of the dual-language learning programs to incorporate a variety of values relevant to English learners’ environment is necessary. Including parents to give their perspectives from which challenges can be identified is also important. Furthermore, teachers who share a common language with the studentsshould be involved to ensure that the meaning of the original curriculum is maintained.childhood education

 Labelling, English

           Labelling, English as a Second Language (ESL) learners, as not Americans because of their use of native languages is another source of concern in Washington State. In a similar manner to the Proposition 227 instituted in California State, Policies in Washington State possess racial undertones and discourage bilingual classes in the State(Ulloa, 2016). The problem can be addressed by implementing policies similar to California’s Proposition 58 that rescinds English-only lessons in the entire state for public schools (Ulloa, 2016). The policy allows local parents and teachers to determine how to institute their multilingual class programs. For this reason, various stakeholders such as elected leaders, school boards association, immigrant families, and California Chamber of Commerce have lauded the proposition. The policy has received much support in the State due to the realization that preserving the local language is an asset unlike 20 years ago when the issue was highly politicized and racially charged.childhood education

Resolving the issue

          Additionally, resolving the issue in Washington State will require development of a diverse electorate to discourage divisive politics such as those observed in California 20 years ago. Policies similar to Proposition 227, which come with racial undertones and are against institutions of multilingual programs, should be discouraged and thatpromotingbilingual language development encouraged. I believe that removing policies such as Proposition 227 and other discriminatory laws that deny the heritage speakers a chance to learn English in Washington State will be critical to ensure development of successful bilingual programs (Ulloa, 2016).childhood education

Encourage monolingualism.

          In Washington State, students are further disadvantaged due to policies that encourage monolingualism. According to Kamenetz (2016), research in the past 20 years indicates that monolingualism is a disservice to students who would otherwise benefit from positive brain enhancement through multilingual studies. Therefore, policies that encourage bilingual languages as a way of enhancing learner’s minds should be adopted in Washington State. For example, Kamenetez (2016)recommends such programs as the two-immersion programs that benefit a student’s brain.childhood education

Numerous neuroscience studies

          Moreover, officials in the State’s education system should adopt findings of numerous neuroscience studies that encourage multilingual lessons because when practice meets research, bilingual education is one of the rare happy Nexus instances. I believe that programs that assimilate learners to one language deny the students a chance to expand their brainpower; therefore, biliteracy and bilingualism focusing on giving instructions to both English natives and learners should be approved. childhood education

Underperforming regarding passing

          I also noted that most of English teachers in Washington State are underperforming regarding passing knowledge to the native speakers.Notably, I can associate this underperformance with the lack of a robust policy to ensure that the educators possess excellent skills to enhance their relationship with their students. A program that informs the teachers on the best approaches to apply when handling native speakers is urgently required in Washington State. According to Batt (2010), teachers with extensive knowledge on bilingual teaching strategies are more successful in their services. Batt, also notes that teachers who consistently attend coaching programs on the best bilingual teaching strategies excel more compared to those who do not. However, Batt, noted that there exist individuals who argue that coaching programs cannot solve the issue because teacher-student relationship is a personal commitment and not a skill based matter. Batt identified that such claims are unfounded and the coaching program possess immense potential to boost student-teacher relationshi.childhood education

Mandatory programs

          Therefore, mandatory programs focusing on bilingual learning for English teachers are necessary to ensure that the instructors flourish in educating native language speakers. Policies to create regular coaching sessions on the best bilingual teaching methods, as well as encouraging or coercing English educators to attend, should be adopted in Washington State. I believe that teachers play a critical role in the academic success of a student; hence, coaching sessions should be introduced to improve the level of knowledge and skills they possesschildhood education

Poor childhood education

            Lack of loyalty among teachers to their service and the Stateis another notable factor that contributes to poor childhood education in Washington State. I noted that there exists no policy creating a program for training loyal English teachers in the state. According to Echevarria, Richards-Tutor, Chinn, and Ratleff(2011),fidelity programs for English teachers make the educators identify the purpose of their service, hence becoming more vigilant in finding ways to achieve the goal. Therefore, introducing fidelity-training programs for the English teachers is one of the efficient methods of improving loyalty of educators. Therefore, English educators in Washington State should regularly be evaluated to ensure that they are loyal to their work and State.Accordingly, teachers with low or without loyalty should be recommended to fidelity training programs. However, some people argue that such kind of programs can be demoralizing to the teaching fraternity hence achieve the opposite of the expected.Echevarria, Richards-Tutor, Chinn, and Ratleff, however, note that the demoralizing factor of the programs can be checked by attaching appropriate motivation requirements to the program. I believe fidelity is the foundation of bilingual education; hence, more emphasis should be applied on the matter in Washington.childhood education

Concerned resident of Washington State,

            As a concerned resident of Washington State, I feel that the policy issues mentioned above hinder effective childhood education to both English and native language speakers. I believe that implementing effective policies on federal and state level will help in resolving matters raised in this letter for a better Washington State. Therefore, I urge you to take into much consideration policies related to the socio-emotional troubleshooting for English learners as well as teachers training and coaching, with an emphasis on fidelity and bilingual teaching methods on a federal state platform. I would also like you to use your political influence and connections to mobilize the council of the district of Columbia and other relevant stakeholders to come up with effective policies on bilingual learning-incorporating the solutions presented above-in the state.childhood education

Professional development

Thank you in advance.


Mengwen Cui.


Batt, E. (2010). Cognitive coaching: A

phase in professional development to implement sheltered instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education26(4), 997-1005.

Echevarria, J., Richards-Tutor, C., Chinn, V., & Ratleff, P. (2011). Did they get it? The role of fidelity in teaching English learners. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy54(6), 425-434.

Kamenetz, A. (2016). 6 Potential brain benefits of bilingual education. Retrieved from

Ulloa, J. (2016, Oct. 12). Bilingual education has been absent from California public schools for almost 20 years. But that may soon change. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from Wille, J., & Fishman, M. (2014). Head start cares for migrant and seasonal families: adapting a preschool social-emotional curriculum. Retrieved from education

A Summary of The Man In The Iron Mask Movie

A Summary of The Man In The Iron Mask Movie

Directed by Randall Wallace, The Man In The Mask Movie captures the story of a mysterious masked man who was imprisoned for thirty-four years during the reign of Louis XIV in the nineteenth century France. The existing literature about the prisoner suggests different identities, which include the Duke of Beaufort and the Kings Secret brother. In the film, Wallace characterizes the prisoner as Philippe, an identity suggested by Alexandre Duma in the Three Musketeers book. From the existing evidence, the mystery of the story does not only lie in the identity of the masked man, but his mask as well. Voltaire, enlightenment French writer, claims that the mask was made from iron, but some writers indicate that it was made from black velvet. Using segments of the story as captured in several literature, Wallace constructs the story of the prisoner, but largely avoids the politics of the Louis the XIV. As represented in the movie, the French state is appears to be a dictatorship of the musketeers led by King Louis the XIV under the watch of the fictional D’ Artagnan. The ageing Musketeers, Porthos, Athos and Aramis are mostly captured loitering around the edges and grumbling treasonously on replacing the King. One of the musketeers, Aramis, springs Philippe from prison and carries him off to the country, where together with the other two, give the boy a three week royal training in plot to replace the reigning Louis XIV.  

A Risk Management Policy Brief

A Risk Management Policy Brief

            Lack of a uniform risk management strategy at Red Clay Renovations can lead to immense information security compromise, especially because of increased threats in the contemporary business environment. Immense deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) without a relevant information security risk mitigation strategy significantly increases the company’s risk of cyber-attack. Some IoT aspects, such as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) arrangement, which enhances remote access, can considerably compromise information security, because an organization cannot explicitly manage devices connecting to the company network (Downer & Bhattacharya, 2015). Moreover, the company risks incurring immense financial costs on non-compliance fines from regulatory agencies, such as HIPAA (Chen & Benusa, 2017). For instance, allowing ‘Reality Media Services’ (RMS) to retain independence after acquisition considerably reduces transparency across the entire organization, hence Red Clay Renovations cannot guarantee compliance to information security policies and industry standards across the entire organization. Therefore, the company needs to implement a uniform information risk management strategy to enhance transparency, hence improve compliance, and reduce the high chance of information security incidences from the IoT system, especially devices.

The DHS Policy


            A uniform risk management strategy consisting of training and a particular business process can significantly enhance information security threats and vulnerability, especially by improving compliance. Although DHS suggests that the ‘one-size-fits-all’ strategy is neither desirable nor feasible, the organization acknowledges that it can offer broad guidance, which can be tailored to meet specific risk management needs (Beer, 2011). In this regard, a uniform risk management approach can significantly reduce chances of cyber-attacks across the entire organization, by enhancing compliance, as well prioritizing the most significant risks. For instance, formulating a uniform risk management strategy can help Red Clay Renovations to improve compliance across the organization, by enhancing transparency, and prioritize reduction of risks from IoT devices that significantly increase the threat of cyber-attack to the firm (Yoon & Kim, 2017). Therefore, with a single business process-based strategy, Red Clay Renovations can considerably reduce the risk of incurring financial losses from non-compliance fines and law-suits after an information system compromise.  


            Regardless of its immense benefits, the DHS policy has some drawbacks that Red Clay Renovations must be ready to address to significantly improve organizational risk management. For instance, because the policy emphasizes a unity of effort, including immense synchronization, the firm must be prepared to incur an increased cost of implementation emanating from strategic, operational and institutional system differences between Red Clay Renovations and RMC. Moreover, as noted earlier, a uniform technique of risk management is neither feasible nor desirable, because it cannot totally eliminate chances of information system compromise (Beer, 2011). Therefore, Red Clay Renovations must supplement the uniform risk management approach with a risk avoidance strategy, including extensive focus on the most significant threats and vulnerabilities, to considerably reduce security risks,.

The Risk Control Strategy

            Lack of transparency is one of the primary sources of risk management issues at Red Clay Renovations, especially because the organization cannot effectively implement a risk avoidance strategy, including activities, such as training and system integration. Specifically by allowing RMS to run independently, Red Clay Renovations cannot appropriately identify specific areas of improvement with regard to risk management. In this regard, the organization cannot conduct successful employee training to enhance compliance, as well as significantly reduce exposure. Because RMS employees are custodians of essential customer information and can access the company network, they pose a significant risk to the company information systems, as well as the functionality of smart homes delivered by Red Clay Renovations. With high level of non-compliance and delivery of products, with a significant information risk, the organization risks loss of revenue, because of reduced customer satisfaction, as well as immense financial losses from regulatory fines (Chen & Benusa, 2017). Therefore, the company must implement an institutional risk avoidance strategy, by integrating RMS into its organizational structure to improve compliance and deliver products with reduced information security risks.


            Red Clay Renovation must implement a robust information security startegy to reduce the risk of information security compromise, especially from IoT devices and reduced compliancy to policies and industry standards. Despite adopting immense operational and organizational changes, the company is yet to implement an effective risk management approach to reduce chances of cyber-attacks. For instance, by allowing DMS to run independently, the organization lacks sufficient transparency to enhance information security management in the entire organization. The company cannot conduct institution risk mitigation activities and system integration to significantly support operational processes that ensure delivery of products with a reduced risk of attack. Therefore, Red Clay must implement a uniform risk management strategy which can significantly enhance transparency to improve implementation of an institutional risk mitigation strategy, such as avoidance, including training and system integration.


Beers, R. (2011). Risk management fundamentals: Homeland Security risk management doctrines. Retrieved from

Chen, J. Q., & Benusa, A. (2017). HIPAA security compliance challenges: The case for small healthcare providers. International Journal of Healthcare Management10(2), 135-146.

Downer, K., & Bhattacharya, M. (2015, December). BYOD security: A new business challenge. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Smart City/SocialCom/SustainCom (SmartCity) (pp. 1128-1133). IEEE.

Yoon, S., & Kim, J. (2017). Remote security management server for IoT devices. 2017 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). doi:10.1109/ictc.2017.8190885

A Review on World Water Emission Problems

A Review on World Water Emission Problems

            After decades of investments and regulations to minimize point source pollution, there still exist numerous water quality challenges in OECD countries. Efforts to address the existing problems have been focused on using market mechanisms, including immense potential to improve water quality, as well as economic performance of a country. However, water quality improvement programs can have negative or positive impacts to a country’s economic performance. For instance, in the United States, a significant percentage of the national budget is used to fund Total Daily Maximum Load (TDML) programs, hence reducing the budgetary allocations for economic development projects. Moreover, while TDML projects immensely increase government expenditure, the amount of incentive cascading down to the individual participants is still inadequate to encourage adequate participation (Fleming, Lichtenberg & Newburn, 2018). In this regard, the government must consider increasing the amount of available incentives to ensure improved public participation, hence availability of water quality. On the other hand, the tax-based related policies implemented in France are considerably effective, because of the mandatory public participation involved. However, the tax-related regulations and legislations lead to significantly increased water costs, hence reducing the product accessibility, especially to the poor people. Thus, while market mechanisms are essential for improving water quality, they require necessary adjustments with regard to costs and public participations as well to produce the anticipated improved economic performance.   

Water Quality-Related Policies in OECD Countries

            According to OECD, it is easier to control point source municipal and industrial polluters than engage with a huge number of land users, such as farmers, where variable factors such as soil, climate and politics play an immense role. However, the cumulative impacts of diffuse water pollution can be tremendously devastating for the well-being of human beings and the ecosystem. Specifically, the cumulative impacts of water pollution can sabotage sustainable economic growth. In this regard, OECD monitors the connections between agriculture and environment, and identifies relevant contamination mitigation policies, while enhancing the benefits of improved water quality. Moreover, the organization recommends policy to enhance coherence for the agricultural sector’s environmental performance. In this regard, a huge number of OECD countries implement a policy-based strategy to improve the quality of water in point sources, hence support aquatic life.  

Actual Case Studies

            OECD countries have made immense efforts to reduce environmental, as well as economic impacts of water emissions.  Implemented solutions range from water quality management programs to service-related information systems. However, in many cases, market mechanisms play an immense role in the success or failure of the implemented solutions. Some of the implemented solutions in OECD countries include the Thames Tideway Tunnel Project in London, UK, TDML programs in the US and Tax Regulations in France. The Tideway Tunnel Project is fully funded by the UK government and focuses on reducing the amount of waste dissolved in runoff that enters river Thames. Although the project is expected to significantly improve the water quality in river Thames as well as other surface and ground water, it possesses immense economic impacts, especially because of its large budget. On the other hand, US TDML-related programs and French water quality improvement initiatives, including WFD and water quality related taxes, are expected to immensely improve water quality and positively impact the national economy, because of directly including public participation. However, while the US government funds the programs through incentives paid to participants, the French administration imposes taxes on relevant stakeholders to fund water quality improvement initiatives. Therefore, despite having immense similarities, the French and the US programs trigger significantly varied economic as well as water quality impacts.

            Thames Tideway Tunnel Project, London, UK. The increasingly rampant cholera epidemics in London, UK, especially in the early years of the 19th century, were largely attributed to the lack of a sewer system in the city. In this regard, a mega project, designed by the then Metropolitan Board of Works, chief engineer, Joseph Bazalgette to divert waste water to river Thames, was implemented in the city in the 1860s. The Victorian project involved excavation of over 3.5 million tonnes of earth, and need almost 700,000 millimetres of cement and about 300,000 bricks to complete. With such a huge sewer system, cases of cholera epidemics significantly reduced in London in the following several decades. However, despite undergoing several major improvements in the 20th century, the sewer system cannot meet the demands of a significantly high population and increased physical expansion, especially during wet weathers when high rainfall can immensely overwhelm sewers and treatment works in the city. Thus, the Thames Tideway Tunnels Project was proposed to upgrade the sewer system in London to upgrade the existing sewer system to meet the demands of a significantly expanded city.

            TDML Programs in the US. Apart from funding national programs, the federal government, through EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) section 319, requests each state to implement a TDML plan, to ensure improved water quality throughout the country. Each year, since 1996, the federal government makes cost-shared payments in millions of dollars through a variety of agricultural pollution abatement programs in the country. Furthermore, the 2002 Farm Bill recommends a significant increase of the TDML initiative funding throughout the United States. In this regard, the government expects immense public participation, hence tremendous water quality improvement in the country. Moreover, because the incentives provide seed capital to the participants, the government anticipates increased economic activities, hence performance throughout the country. However, despite increased government spending, available incentives are still inadequate to improve public participation and instigate significant economic growth in the country (Edmonds, 2016). Therefore, the US government must make the necessary adjustments to improve the performance of the TDML programs through increased public participation.

            Water Quality-Related Taxes in France. As stipulated by the corresponding regulations and legislations, European Union-compliant Wastewater treatment systems had been developed in all urban areas in France by 2015. While considering the reality of diminishing water quality, especially in urban centres, the French government has adopted several administrative strategies to improve efforts to protect water sources and contain water pollution in the country. Sewage treatment plants have already been developed in all towns with a population exceeding 2000 people. Moreover, as a result of effective policy implementation, sewage treatment in the country has reached 98 percent, hence significantly increasing the amount of oxygen in water bodies throughout the country.

Problems Targeted by the Case studies

            Thames Tideway Tunnel Project, London, UK. Because the overflow system channels excess flow to river Thames, it can lead to an increased discharge of untreated sewage; hence significantly affect aquatic life in the water body. With an increasingly high amount of untreated sewage entering the river annually, the situation escalated to become unmanageable in the 20th century. In this regard, after making several economic and social considerations, and in preparation of the Paralympic games that were scheduled to take place in the city in 2012, the UK government requested the Thames Tideway Tunnel Strategic Study agency to identify a solution in the shortest time possible in 2000. In a 2005 report, the agency recommends the Thames Tideway Tunnel Project (TTTP) as one of the feasible solutions to the problem. According to the project proposals, the construction works were expected to run from 2015 up to 2020. With a tunnel designed to run about 67 metres below the ground, and numerous water treatment plants, TTTP will immensely improve the quality of water in London. However, the UK government is expected to spend about 14.5 billion pounds in the five year project. In this regard, the amount of government’s spending during the five years of the project implementation will significantly increase (Alder & Appleton, 2017). Therefore, despite improving the quality of water in the city, TTTP will significantly impact the economic performance of the United Kingdom.

            Total Daily Maximum Load (TDML) in the US. TDML programs were developed to improve voluntary public participation in the provision of essential data about the quality of water in their surroundings. Both federal and state agencies utilize a plethora of voluntary incentive programs, including the Conservation Reserve Program and the Wetland Reserve Program, in an attempt to change farming practices, hence improve water quality. TDML-related programs both at the national and the federal state immensely rely on public participation especially in the provision of data to enhance planning. However, despite increased water quality improvement efforts both at the federal and the state level and huge cost-shared payments, there still exist watersheds throughout the US. Moreover, it is only few cases of water improvement that have been documented since the beginning of the TDML program decades ago. Therefore, the US must review the incentive programs with regard to effectiveness to ensure improved performance.

            Water Quality-Related Taxes in France. Apart from its immense beauty, France is one of the European countries with the highest living standards. Nevertheless, the country still encounters several environmental issues, especially regarding clean water accessibility. While the largest part of the population has access to clean water, a significant number of people in France have encountered tap water pollution. It is estimated that about 2.8 million people have encountered tap water pollution in the country. In many cases, increased tap-water contamination emanates from nitrates, pesticides or lead pollution. In this regard, the French government has implemented about 50 regulatory standards to mitigate the threat of tap water pollution, as well as improve the quality of water in point sources (Feuillette et al., 2016). However, some of the water-related regulations immensely increase the cost of the product. Thus, although about 95 percent of the French population is problem free, a number of citizens, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford the cost of the product.      

Theoretical Background of the Case Studies

            Total Daily Maximum Load (TDML) in the US. A TDML is used to calculate the maximum amount of a pollutant that is allowed to enter a water body. TDMLs establish the target reduction and assigns load reductions required to the sources of the pollutant. A source of pollution is described as either point source which receives a WLA (Wasteload Allocation), or nonpoint source that gets a LA (Load Allocation). WLA point sources include all sources that are regulated under the NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program), such as the CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations), some storm water discharges and the wastewater treatment activities. All remaining pollutant sources and the natural background sources are assigned as LA. Apart from allocating the pollutant sources, a TDML must account for variations of water quality from one season to another, and include the MOS (margin of safety) to account for uncertainties in estimating the impact of pollutant reduction in meeting the water quality standards. Mathematically, TDML can be expressed using the following equation: TMDL = ΣWLA + ΣLA + MOS, where WLA is the sum of the point sources (Wasteload allocations), LA is the sum of nonpoint sources (load allocations), and MOS denotes the margin of safety. Water body/pollutant combinations refer to each pollutant threatening or impairing a water body. In this regards, if there are three pollutants threating water body, three TDML may be developed. Nevertheless, in some instances, a single TDML is used to address more than one water body/pollutant combinations.

                Water Quality-Related Taxes in France. Apart from the water taxes, France has identified a wide range of water quality improvement strategies which include public participation. In preparation for the initial action program of the WFD (Water Framework Directive), the French government identified over 5000 ground and surface water bodies, and documented a high number of small rivers. Prior to the WFD, the government, through the national water planning, France had identified more than 90 surface water catchments that were to be subjected to SAGE plan, including water catchment planning and public participation. Catchments, in turn, belong to six hydrographic districts that are identical with agences de l’eau territories created more than four decades ago. The territories are state agencies that are used to apply the polluter-pays principle. All six agencies are used to set levies on pollution discharge and water abstraction to ensure an economical use of the resource by farmers, domestic users and industries (Berardi, Sevestre, Tepaut & Vigneron, 2016). Thus, while using a strategy that combines the tax to discourage pollution and enhance proper water-use, and public participation in water-quality improvement initiatives, France has significantly increased the quality of water in the country.

A Comparative Analysis

            Although the Thames Tideway Tunnel Project in the UK possesses immense economic benefits, it is not a typical market mechanism for addressing water pollution. On the other hand, the water quality improvements programs, including legislations and regulations, and sewage treatment in France and the US incentives-based TDML programs are a perfect examples of market mechanisms for water quality improvements. Both programs are regulation-based and impact all households in their respective countries. Moreover, both the TDML and the French water quality-related legislations involve immense public participation in the fight against water pollution. Nevertheless, the programs depict several differences with regard to mode of administration, costs, objectives, as well as impacts. For example, while the French government focuses on imposing taxes on relevant products, the US government emphasizes an incentive-based strategy, hence spends immense amounts of the national budget on water safety. Moreover, while public participation in the US is voluntary, it is largely coerced in France. In this regard, while participation is guaranteed in France, TDML programs in the US record a significantly reduced level of public participation (Feuillette, et al., 2017). Therefore, compared to the US TDML programs, the France regulatory initiatives are highly effective in-terms of costs and outcomes, because the government spends immensely reduced amounts of the national budget, but include product accessibility drawbacks as well.

Program Cost

            Water quality improvement program both in France and the US possess immense similarities in terms of implementation, but have some considerable differences in terms of economic impacts. In France, most of the programs are implemented by the national government through stringent regulatory and legislative controls. Some of the water-safety legislations in the country impose taxes on the product, and the collected revenue is used to fund waste water treatment programs in urban centres. In this regard, the national government utilizes a significantly reduced portion of the national budget to improve water quality in urban centres throughout the country. While spending significantly reduced portions of the national budget, France can undertake immense water-safety programs and economic development activities, as well. Nevertheless, imposing increased amounts of tax can immensely reduce access to clean water, hence exposing a significant number of citizens to water pollution. On the other hand, the US utilizes an incentive program which is focused on encouraging the people to participate in efforts to contain water pollution in the entire country. It is estimated that the federal government utilizes millions of dollars every year in incentives to encourage public participation in TDML-related programs. Thus, water-safety programs significantly reduce the amount of money allocated to development projects, hence probably slowing-down economic growth in the country. Nevertheless, the federal government incentives can be used as seed capital to start conservation related businesses, hence stimulate immense economic activities in the country. Moreover, unlike the French programs that are primary focused on urban centres, the US TDML initiatives focus on the entire country hence can lead to immense economic activities in the entire country (Shortle, 2017). Therefore, while the French regulatory strategy includes significantly reduced cost of water treatments, the US incentive can trigger immense economic activities in the country, hence significantly improving the country’s economy, but considerably increases government spending.

Public Participation

            Participation in water quality programs in France and USA depicts considerable differences in terms of the number and diversity of people involved. While every citizen must indirectly participate through paying water taxes in France, participation in the United States is not guaranteed, because members are supposed to contribute voluntarily. Specifically, participation in the program immensely depends on the amount of incentives offered. It is expected that an increased amount of participation will attract remarkable participation, hence increasing chances of the program success. However, when the public deems the amount of incentives inadequate to warrant participation, the programs cannot produce the expected outcomes. In this regard, the country can experience immense economic impacts, because the increased budgetary allocations on the TDML programs cannot produce matching economic and water quality improvement outcomes. Therefore, because of increased public participation, hence water quality, France experiences considerably reduced amount of water contamination, hence leading to diminished health cases, such as waterborne illnesses that can be immensely expensive to manage for the national government.

Program Impacts

            . While public participation is guaranteed in France, the level of participation in the US depends on the amount of incentive offered. Because the amount of incentives is considerably small, the country experiences immense issues in water-quality management. For instance, there is no documented positive improvement of water quality in the United States since the inception of the TDML programs in 1996. On the other hand, in France, water-quality in the country is remarkable because of increased treatment activities facilitated by mandatory participation. Moreover, interaction with water pollution is significantly reduced; hence the government spends a small portion of the national budget on water-related health issues, such as water-borne ailments, in the country. In addition, because of reduced amount of chemical and pesticide usage in France, water bodies in the country have increased amounts of oxygen; hence can provide the necessary BOD to support aquatic life. In this regard, the French blue economy has immensely improved since the inception of the water quality improvement programs in the country. On the other hand, the US blue economy is significantly reducing, because of deteriorating reduced oxygen levels in water bodies (Renzetti & Dupont, 2018). However, because water quality is emphasized in the urban centres, people in rural areas may still face significant water pollution in France. Therefore, while the French strategy boosts economic activities in its water bodies, there is a need for improvements to ensure that the threat of water contamination cases is significantly reduced in rural areas. 


            Regulation based water quality improvement programs are highly effective in terms of cost reduction and participation improvement, but include considerable barriers to product accessibility. In France, water-safety-related laws significantly increase the cost of the product, hence negatively affecting affordability. In this regard, poor people, especially in rural areas cannot afford the product; hence implementation of a tax waiver program is recommended to enhance uniform accessibility of the product. Nevertheless, after collecting significantly increased amount of revenue, the French government funds immense water treatment activities to improve the quality of available water. In this regard, most of the water bodies in the country possess adequate oxygen to sustain aquatic life, hence considerably improving the performance of the country’s blue economy. On the other hand, the incentive based strategy used by the United States government to support water-quality improvements is highly inefficient, especially because of registering reduced level of public participation. The amounts of incentives offered by the federal government are inadequate to inspire the necessary public participation. In this regard, despite spending an increased portion of the national budget, water quality, hence the blue economy in the US is diminishing. However, the incentives offered can immensely stimulate the country’s economy when used as seed capital to fund small scale conservation businesses. Thus, while France should consider introducing tax waivers to enhance water accessibility for rural based consumers, the US should consider supporting the small scale businesses started with the incentives as seed capital, to significantly enhance economic performance in the country.


Alder, A., & Appleton, M. (2017, August). Super sewer: an update on the Thames Tideway tunnel project in London. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Civil Engineering (Vol. 170, No. 3, pp. 100-100). Thomas Telford Ltd.

Berardi, N., Sevestre, P., Tepaut, M., & Vigneron, A. (2016). The impact of a ‘soda tax’on prices: evidence from French micro data. Applied Economics48(41), 3976-3994.

Edmonds, D. (2016). Before the Tap Runs Dry: Incentivizing Water Sustainability in America’s Craft Breweries. Geo. Wash. J. Energy & Envtl. L.7, 164.

Feuillette, S., Levrel, H., Boeuf, B., Blanquart, S., Gorin, O., Monaco, G., … & Robichon, S. (2016). The use of cost–benefit analysis in environmental policies: Some issues raised by the Water Framework Directive implementation in France. Environmental science & policy57, 79-85.

Fleming, P., Lichtenberg, E., & Newburn, D. (2018). Water Quality Trading Program Design with Heterogeneous Behavioral Responses.

Renzetti, S., & Dupont, D. (2018). Ownership and performance of water utilities. In The business of water and sustainable development (pp. 99-110). Routledge.

Shortle, J. (2017). Policy Nook:“Economic Incentives for Water Quality Protection”. Water Economics and Policy3(02), 1771004.

A Review of ‘Flannery O’Connor’s“Spoiled Prophet”’

A Review of ‘ Flannery O’Connor’s “Spoiled Prophet”’

Theodore William Hendricks reviewed a responseby Flannery O’Connor to a teacher who had sent her an interpretation claiming that she found ‘A Good Man is Hard to Find’ misguided. In the review, Hendricks quotes several literature by O’Connor, which emphasize grace and the role of prophets in the context of Catholic faith. Specifically, the author highlights O’Connor’s perception of the story between the grandmother and the misfits in ‘AGoodManisHard to Find’ as a duel of sorts. Notably, the article by Hendricks seems more of an interpretation ora sermon than a critical review, because it largely focuses on O’Connor’s literature and provides almost all of the supporting evidence from her arguments. In this regard, the author seems to be elaborating O’Connor’s standpoints to his students. In scholarly articles, authors basically present their original positions or arguments about a subject and provide a wide reaching support through experiment or research. Thus, although Hendricks makes remarkable observations about grace and prophets in O’Connor’s response it would have been better if he supported the arguments with relevant in increased views from other scholarly materials regardless of his audience.

In the article, Hendricks notes that in the view of O’Connor, the misfit was not a monster but a tragic figure suffering from his misunderstanding of the humanity and God relationship. In this regard, the failure of the misfit to conform to the society’s perception and expectations ruined him. In addition, Hendricks identifies that O’Connor regarded to the misfit as a ‘spoilt prophet’. Notably, the misfit’s ability to view and question things automatically qualified to become a prophet just like Ezekiel, who was immensely critical of the conventional ways of Israelite’s worship. In this regard, Hendricks argues that if the mainstream religion has lost the spiritual urgency, hence become secular and respectable, then the work of the modern prophet, with the view similar to that of the misfit, is to criticize it. Nevertheless, the O’Connor regarded them is fit as a spoilt prophet, because of his failure to recognize that the grace of God can come through the world order. The misfit kept on insisting on believing after seeing, especially on matters regarding Jesus who he accused throwing things out of balance.In this regard, the misfit fails to recognize his purpose and is subjected to immense suffering. Thus, it is highly essential to identify the Grace of God whether through the ordinary world setting or from any avenue.

The misfit’s failure to conform to the society’s expectation earns him a rejection by the people, but not the suffering.Hendricks notes that everybody, whether in consonance with the society’s expectation or not suffers, hence the misfit was correct by identifying in this life pleasure is hard to find. Thus, the misfit must have been mistaken to attribute his suffering to the rejection by the society. Notably, if the misfit understood that even the mean and those he perceived as wicked, he would have made an honest profession of faith; hence the society would have not closed the doors for him and the suffering could have been less intense. Nonetheless, the misfit insisted on the witnessing before believing, hence the author terms him regenerate or the lost. Therefore, it is clear that failure to recognize that objects of the world can deliver God’s grace leads to immense suffering for the misfit.

The author’s view about the grace of God must be true because the supremacy of the Almighty Father reigns over everything seen and unseen, hence can choose to do anything without being questioned by anyone. In addition, God works mysteriously and if he chooses to use the mean people of the world to deliver his Grace nobody has freedom the freedom to demand otherwise. In this regard, by insisting that God must deliver grace by himself for him to believe, the misfit is misguided because God works in a different and more powerful order from that of humanity. Furthermore, the approach of punishing those he perceives as wicked is highly misleading because if everybody assumed, such an approach, the misfit would have been the first one to be killed by the society. Notably The author satisfactorily justifies his argument using relevant examples from ‘A Good Man is hard to Find’ and O’Connor’s view points on the same. However, Hendricks never adequately utilized other sources to articulate matters in the article, hence most of his arguments seem more of opinions between a few people rather than the general views. Thus, although the author’s argument indicating that God can use the world’s objects to deliver grace are correct, more view points from other authors would have immensely improved the credibility of the document.