civic planning

Mesoamerican Cosmograms

Central Arguments and Themes

Ashmore and Sabloff, in “Spatial Orders in Maya Civic Plans,” focus on civic planning, cosmology, and politics through the lens of Maya arenas and the buildings. The authors establish the relationship between the above factors by examining the complexity of spatial order and politics in particular centers. Sabloff and Ashmore observe that urban centers with short and less complex political histories are easier to interpret spatially compared to those with turbulent and long political history. The authors argue that urban centers with longer development and minimal upheavals are characterized by strong and consistent planning, which is influenced by politics and cosmology. Therefore, Ashmore and Sabloff successfully identify the relationship between civic planning, politics, and cosmology of Maya civilization civic planning.


To support their arguments, Ashmore and Sabloff provide an analysis of spatial layouts in several urban centers, such as Xunantunich, Copan, Sayil, Tikal, and Seibal. The directional model is consistently utilized in the paper in order to link city planning to cosmology and politics. For instance, in the north of Copan, excavations identified pieces of glyphic frieze, which included the name of 18-Rabbit and a calendar-round date (Ashmore and Sabloff 204). Additionally, the authors establish significant similarities between the core urban layout of Xunatich and that of Naranjo (Ashmore and Sabloff 206). In the case of 18-Rabbit, (a political figure of Copan who was buried in the heavenly North), the authors clearly show how cosmology influenced politics and city planning. The second case shows how cities were built based on emulation and directional strategies to engulf future ritual and civic centers in a cover of longstanding authority; hence, connecting urban planning and politics. civic planning

Comparison with the Other Readings

Ashmore and Sabloff’s arguments about cosmology and cosmograms in Mesoamerica are highly criticized by Michael E. Smith in “Did the Maya Build Architectural Cosmograms?” Although Smith acknowledges that construction was influenced by cosmology in such territories as China, the author vehemently criticizes the methods used by Ashmore and Sabloff to connect urban planning and cosmology and regards them as speculative, subjective, and less grounded on heuristic evidence. However, Sprajc, in “More on Mesoamerican Cosmology and City Plans,” supports the study conducted by Ashmore and Sabloff and dismisses Smith’s arguments stating that rigorous approaches have been used to support claims that Maya buildings were influenced by cosmology (209).civic planning

A Comparison with Architectural Historians

Ashmore and Sabloff’s approach to urban planning and cosmology is generally similar to that of architectural historians, who suggest that archaic cultures influenced the weighting and configuration of human habitat and the placement within ritually, mythically, and symbolically. Architectural historians acknowledge that in the ancient world, human life was embedded and received a deeper meaning and spirit from an organized and ordered spatiotemporal natural world that resided in culture (Rappengluck 387). Therefore, the authors and the architectural world possess a similar view of cosmology and cosmograms.civic planning

Part 2


A cosmogram is a symbolic or graphical representation of specific aspects of origin, especially that of the universe. The graphical representation can be a building, a city, or a coin that has metaphorical interpretations pointing to the origin of the universe or humanity. As stated by Smith, “Cosmogram is a representation of the entire universe through symbolic shorthand or artistic metaphor” (217). The phrase indicates that a cosmogram, whether an artistic metaphor or symbolic text, must entirely represent the understanding of a particular group of people about the origin of the universe. Therefore, a complete cosmogram must involve the underworld, the physical world, and, the heaven.civic planning

[incomplete, waiting for customer’s reply]

A domestic engineer

Beauty and Sexuality in the Fifties

            The 1950’s American women, as revealed by the media of the time, had a clear role in the society that involved being a domestic engineer and playing second to men, who were considered the head of the family. [Author1] Additionally, television shows, films, and popular culture had common messages to women that included avoiding [Author2] avoided the issue of sexuality. However, a 1948 survey about sexuality by Kinsey suggests that the reality was far from the general views about women (“1950S Discourse On Sexuality”). [Author3] Some of the film images and icons[Author4] , Beauty pageants, and Barbie of 1950s  [Author5] during the mentioned period portrayed beauty and sexuality [Author6] as indirectly robust tools of for promoting female gender independence using indirect means. A domestic engineer

Beauty and sexuality in a hidden way

            Film image icons [Author7] such as Marilyn Monroe and Doris Day, Beauty Pageants, and Barbie revealeds[Author8]  beauty and sexuality in a hidden way as the strength of a woman that can be used to achieve greater milestones in life. For instance, Marilyn Monroe without formal education useds[Author9]  her sexuality and beauty to counter the many odds in her life, as she becomes became one of the leading film images icons [Author10] in 1950s (Cohen 263). In addition, Monroe, by perfectly performing in roles that involved show casing beauty and use of sexuality, was able to reveal the reality about the woman of the time, which was hidden by the media, especially the TV[Author11] . Therefore, from the icon, it is was clear that sexuality and beauty can be used to counter gender dominance. A domestic engineer

Expectations of the society

            The fact that success in the film industry led to a more independent Monroe who could make decisions regarding her life means that beauty and sexuality can also be used to purchase #. For instance, the actor was able to divorce several men and disagreed with a husband who wanted her out of the film industry. Doris Day, like Monroe, was also able to use sexuality and beauty to acquire freedom in her life; hence, serving as an example to the rest of women in the society (“1950S Discourse On Sexuality”[Author12] ). The film image and icon shows that a woman can choose to be married or not despite the expectations of the society where an adult female should be . A domestic engineer

The beauty pageants and Barbie .

            Apart from the film image icons, the beauty pageants and Barbie dolls also revealed beauty and sexuality as powerful tools of for acquiring gender freedom. Some of the Miss America Beauty pageant participants became very powerful and independent thinkers besides possessing financial independence. For instance, Ric Ferentz, a 1926 winner of the Pageant, made over a hundred thousand dollars, which was more than the president’s earnings. Ferentz was also able to disagree with the pageant organizers when they refused to pay her an appearance fee. [Author14] Barbie, a beautiful woman used in the advert [Author15] of widely produced by a dolls company,[Author16]  also shows how beauty and sexuality can be used in other areas, such as advertising. Therefore, apart from being a homemaker, a woman can achieve substantial progress in other sections [Author17] realms of the society. A domestic engineer

Tools for gender

            Barbie, film image and icons, and Beauty pageants succeeded in displaying beauty and sexuality as tools for gender independence, hence  so that minimum resistance was expected. According to the survey by Kinsey, sexuality was very popular between men and women by 1948, whereby about half of each of the gender was involved in premarital sex. [Author18] Part of the success can also be attributed to morality since, despite displaying sexuality, the film icons never went too far to become immoral in the eyes of the society. For instance, Marilyn Monroe always had to divorce a husband to marry another one. In addition, for Doris Day, commenting on men’s immorality said [Author19] that her sexual matters could be addressed by in a single bedroom, while a thousand ones could not solve sexuality issues for her male counterpart. Therefore, film icons, Barbie, and Beauty pageants acted within the society’s expectations and succeeded in delivering their message.A domestic engineer

Gender independence

            Barbie, Beauty Pageants, and film image and icons, [Author20] also remained popular in a The women became popular during that conservative period by due to their support upholding to some of the certain messages. Dressing was one of the techniques[Author21]  that was used to ensure that the message was received with minimum resistance. For instance, Barbie’s advert of 1959 involveds decently dressed women performing other roles in the society. Doris Day is was also smartly dressed in her roles; hence, her show generateds minimal controversy. With minimum [Author22] hardly any opposition, the message about gender independence was successfully delivered. A domestic engineer

        Dressing and observing morality

            In conclusion[Author23] , the Barbie, pageants, and film image icons successfully used sexuality and beauty to show that a woman can be independent. Adhering to the society expectations eases delivery of the message in a highly conservative era by minimizing the amount of resistance. Dressing and observing morality are some of the techniques used to maintain popularity while conveying the intended message. As a result of the female champions, such as Doris Day and Marilyn Monroe, the beauty pageants and Barbie, the American woman became more independent compared to the one created by the TV shows[Author24] in the following years.A domestic engineer

Works Cited [Author25] “1950S Discourse On Sexuality – Thirdsight History.”, 2013. http://, [Author26] 16 Oct. 2017.

Cohen, Lisa. “The Horizontal Walk: Marilyn Monroe, Cinemascope, and Sexuality.” The Yale Journal of Criticism, vol. 11, no.1, (1998, pp.): 259-288.[Author27] 

Role of sexuality and messages

Dear Paul,

Thank you for working on the assignment. I should certainly praise your ability to mention a number of strong arguments with regard to the role of sexuality and messages delivered by the mentioned women. The sources you have used were appropriate. You have obeyed almost all MLA formatting rules. Nonetheless, the paper was full of redundancy and repetitions. Please always aim to demonstrate richness of your vocabulary and writing skills. Paraphrase and look at an issue from different angle to avoid repeating the same ideas. See more tips here:

Also, stay always within your line of argumentation until the very end. Do not surprise the reader with anything new in the conclusion. Summary the arguments only:

Unfortunately, even though the content was relevant, but the way you have presented and organized it was not successful. Therefore, the bid share is only 75%. Please work on the above mentioned areas to improve your share next time.



 [Author1]Apply commas to set off non-restrictive dependent clause. See more explanations here:

 [Author2]Not clearly used phrase. Did you mean that the messages to the women were to avoid sexuality? Or what does the phrase included avoiding mean? Based on the given information in the prompt, there was NO mentioning of sexuality during that time. Try to be more explicit in your expressions

 [Author3]Cite this information. You have obviously taken it from an outside source:

 [Author4]Be consistent. Since icons is used in plural, referring to several icons, the word images also is to be in plural form.

 [Author5]Please do not copy-paste the instructions. Paraphrase or narrow down/generalize, depending on the topic, them.

 [Author6]Contradictory statement. Two sentences up you said that sexuality was avoided. Now, you say that the images of the epoch portrayed sexuality…

 [Author7]Unnecessary repetition since you have mentioned this characteristic in the thesis statement.

 [Author8]Subject-verb disagreement Didn’t you notice that you have a list of nouns?

 [Author9]Since you are talking about events in the past and since the introduction was in the past tense, it would be logical to maintain the same verb tense here:

 [Author10]These are two different words.

 [Author11]Do not forget about a comma before a parenthetical element.

 [Author12]See my relevant comment on the reference page.

 [Author13]Avoid repetitions. Paraphrase or use synonyms instead.

 [Author14]Where did you take this information? Ric Ferentz is a man!

Be more attentive.

 [Author15]It is a tautological statement. You should not mention the thing about the adverts when you describe the object if you make it as your argument.

 [Author16]When you rename the same thing in order to specify it, called appositives, use commas to set them off from both sides. See more information here:

 [Author17]Wrong word choice. I do not think that society has sections..

 [Author18]Redundant sentence. You repeat the same fact as in the introduction. Why? Moreover, you again do not provide any citation.

 [Author19]Where is the citation? You have to indicate the source where you obtained this information.

 [Author20]Do not overuse the same phrases. You have been mentioning this part a number of times in this paper.

 [Author21]Wrong form of the word. Use plural noun after the phrase one of .

 [Author22]Avoid repetitions

 [Author23]Use less explicit markets to point out the paragraph is concluding. It is better when the way ideas are organized shows it is a summary of ideas rather than when it is directly stated:

 [Author24]This is totally different argument to the one you were discussing in the paper. Please do not confuse the reader.

 [Author25]Even though the page mentions this email as an author, it is better to avoid it. Cite such sources as with unknown author.

 [Author26]MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs. Here is the full note:

 [Author27]Please follow properly the MLA formatting rules for the articles in periodicals:

Affordable electronic devices

Reasons Why Teens Should Refrain from Using the Internet

Internet usage

Internet usage is experiencing massive growth due to the ease with which it can be accessed through affordable electronic devices like computers and mobile phones. Statistics show that about 300 million Americans have access to the Internet (Lenhart 17). Internet is being made available to children, both at home and at school. Various studies also indicate that teenagers are one of the most popular groups of internet users. They use various digital platforms, including Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, WhatsApp and online games, apart from browsing various other sites for different reasons (Ahn 1435). The use of social media among teenagers, however, poses serious threats like cyber-bullying and online scams, and proves to be a waste of time in addition to damaging one’s reputation, thus, interfering with their positive emotional health. Therefore, teenagers should refrain from using the internet due to the high number of negative effects associated with the activity. Affordable electronic devices

Damaging one’s reputation

The first drawback, of using the internet, to teenagers is the risk of damaging one’s reputation. Serious threats have been reported from Internet use among teens, which has led to the call for censorships to contain this huge menace (Boyd 123). The fact that digital platforms are being utilized as a channel for fun and interaction can serve as grounds for negative effects when teenagers get involved in arguments or fights. Teens may decide to share personal information on social media platforms, thereby, ruining a peer’s reputation by posting sensitive information about their lives or even their characters. This leads to low self-esteem and creates stress in the affected individuals. Secondly, wastage of time is another reason why teenagers should refrain from completely immersing themselves in the social media. Online platforms like Instagram and Facebook are quite addictive. Despite internet being a good source of learning and skill development, teenagers have abused this role since only a handful utilize it for the intended purpose (Ahn 1437). For instance, teens connect to Instagram just to interact with people, especially celebrities whom they barely know, just to admire their lifestyles. This is, however, pointless, as they could better use their free time in other constructive activities. Affordable electronic devices

Teenage indulgence in online platforms

Moreover, cyber-bullying has become rampant in the recent past. It entails harassing and intimidating one’s motives through malicious language as well as circulation of pictures with the intention of humiliating the well-being of a person. In acute cases, online bullying can result in low academic performance, stress development, fear psychosis, low self-esteem, and eventual depression. In severe cases, it may potentially lead to suicidal tendencies (O’Keeffe et al. 803). Such occurrences can be prevented through minimizing the teenage indulgence in online platforms.Affordable electronic devices

The online platform

Finally, teenagers can fall prey to online scams. The online platform has many sites some of which are maliciously created to influence individuals into performing illegal activities. Teenagers are at a higher risk of being victimized since they are offered enticing packages for quick cash generation. These teens become a threat to many institutions, whereby they are used to perpetuate embezzlement. Since online fraud is considered illegal, with serious legal implications where one faces conviction when found guilty, the teens are at a higher risk of being imprisoned compared to other age groups (Boyd 127). Affordable electronic devices

Internet censorship input

In conclusion, teenagers should refrain from over indulgence in digital platforms, judging from the serious threats it causes. Mechanisms like that of internet censorship input should be considered so as to contain the risks of teenage involvement in social media. Moreover, internet regulations should be modified in a manner that allows access only to adults to interact on the web. Teenagers should, however, be allowed selective access to educational sites like that of online books and articles. Through regulation of the teenagers’ engagement in the internet, their lives can be made resourceful for the betterment of the society. Affordable electronic devices