Procrastination: Baseline Report And Treatment Phase

Procrastination: Baseline Report And Treatment Phase

Target Behavior

The chosen target behavior for the experiment was the participant’s lack of the ability to do a task which needs to be accomplished. Primarily this is referred to as procrastination which further states the habitual or the intentional delay for either starting or finishing a task despite understanding the consequences.

Treatment Method

Procrastination is hurting the productivity of an individual in various ways. However, the treatment option of the condition entails cognitive behavioral therapy as a type of psychotherapy. The treatment option often focuses on the treatment of avoiding negative patterns of behavior and thought for a general healthier outlook. Further, the procedure is often considered to be an option to treat anxiety and depression which can be used in the prevention of harmful habits such as procrastination. There are various steps which should be considered to be used in the treatment of the condition. Correcting the thought patterns are one of how to assist in treatment. Additionally, this focuses on describing the negative aspects of the work because it is imperative to put up individual moments to catch up with negative attitudes or patterns (Cerino, 2014). The next item to put into consideration for treatment of procrastination is to break things into the smallest steps to determine the elements which consist of the entire work. Besides, developing breakdown can include an outline of the work into portions which can be managed.

Treatment Period

The treatment of the condition will begin immediately after following the baseline phase that affects an individual. Furthermore, the counselor will develop the steps which will be followed for the treatment period. The initial treatment phase will last for fourteen days which then follow the intervention of the second baseline phase. Similarly, the development of the second baseline started on the first of March and ended on March eighth, 2019. Additionally, the second treatment option began on March ninth and then finished on eleventh of the same month. Nonetheless, the second baseline and treatment phases lasted for about ten days each.

Narrative Experiment

The identified participants used were eleven graduate students enrolled in a ten-week single subject course which was designed at the large university. Although the representation of the group entailed three different academic programs, every student was informed on the instructional methodology that was being used to evaluate the class progress. However, they were not briefed on the other hand about the details of the dependent and independent variables. Further, the students in the course gave their consent for their data to be used in the study.  Nonetheless, the class had the component of the study where there were cases of in-class quizzes and conducted in the computer lab of the university (Cerino, 2014). The room was furnished with all the necessary chairs, tables and desktop computers to the internet and the students also used the university computers to take the pretest and in-class quizzes. Notably at least one of the authors was present when these activities were taking place.


There are various aspects which were put into consideration given the fact that procrastination entails many elements which surround the cause of not being able to complete different tasks. The central dimension which was used consists of three types of computers to assess the performance measurements of the practice quizzes present and weekly in-class quizzes. Further, these evaluation dimensions were being accessed through the course web platform which entailed the various question selected with choices of multiple questions. The participants also received full credit only when they answered the correct options of the answers. The provided sets of the question were developed for every week with similar questions assessed on the same criteria.

Summary Treatment

Dependent Measures

The University computer server systems were used to collect all the data with the frequency server being used in the practice of quizzes completed. Further, the determination of the scores from the quiz is through the clinking of submitting the quiz button. It is also noted that there was a record of date and time when these quizzes were completed, and the scores were either correct or incorrect according to the computer system of the university. The result is then being divided by using the number of responses which are correct by the number of available responses.


there is a comparison of two schedules on the online practice delivered from the quiz which entails the access of noncontingent and contingent aspects which are designed with the use of baseline of the participants. The students were instructed about the first class to be available on the course website to assist them in studying for quizzes in class. The focus of this is the determination of contingencies which explain the baseline through the ruling of treatments attained in the e-mail of each student when the available conditions changed. Similarly, these can break after the schedule of the course are a result of holidays.

Noncontingent access (baseline)

There is a development of a 24 hours schedule which is established with the aim of accessing the practice of quizzes regarding the noncontingent of the fixed time. Primarily this begins after the class session where there was the availability of a quiz per day till all of them are done. For instance when the class is scheduled for Tuesday evening, then the easy quiz is opening for Wednesday. The procedure repeats itself for the rest of the days with the final become on Tuesday.

Contingent access

There was a provision of the first quiz based on non- contingency on the early morning with the subsequent quizzes being under practice on completion of the initial practice. An example is found on the level of participation of the individuals to complete the first practice so that they can gain access to the second practice. Besides, their next quiz was provided for the following morning for the involved participants to obtain one of the practices. Nonetheless, this enables the participants who were not able to complete their first practice quiz on the third day to get enough time for accessing the five practices provided.

Acceptability Ratings

The participants of the experience were given the validity questionnaire to complete anonymously during their final class. These were the elements which were asked to circle as the essential values describing the scale. They were asked to mark a value on an applicable scale indicating the extent to which;

  • Practice questions helped prepare for in‐class questions.
  • They preferred practice questions to other means of studying.
  • They believed that practice questions added to their preparedness for in‐class questions.
  • They find attractive each schedule of practice questions access.
  • They would like to practice questions in future classes.
  • They printed practice questions for offline use.

The determined results indicate lack of treatment because most of the involved participants gained little during the first part of the period. Additionally, during this time there was also a shift from participants while studying through evenly distribution patterns to finish the quizzes. The importance of this was to primarily enable the temporary development of pattern distribution which response to represent the levels of procrastination to be reduced. The change determined to respond in this situation indicated that it was quite durable because the existence of holiday, the classes were not met for the last four weeks of the academic term.

Therefore, it was necessary for the participants to have a free week without any studies and quizzes. Conversely, there was also an indication from the data showing that the response of the students went back to preholiday norms after the release of the rule in the email. The reason for this is because most of the performance of students were better on the quizzes done in class when the condition was being treated. Besides, there was an improvement in the scores made which had a variance between the participants given the fact that the general information entailed a similar letter with half the grade. The response in the pattern was also determined to be compatible with the procrastination model and self-control expressed with the aversive events in the study models. The results which were obtained from the unevenly distributed studying patterns especially during the baseline was developed specifically with the aim of producing a forgoing regular passed as well as being in the action of the unprepared level of the exams. Primarily this assisted in serving as a motivation way for operating the underlined study which increased the likelihood for study which might have been delayed for the sessions. More importantly, it is imperative to understand that the access of contingency level for the additional practice of the quizzes established during the beginning of the week increased the preparedness and the potential for attaining motivation to ultimately engage in large bursts of studying during the end of the week. However, there was some occurrence of few exceptions made when the large amounts of studies were being delayed and did not take place because of the regular responding which were experienced in the entire week of study. Nonetheless, the existing intervention can be described to assist in applying the management performance model which is based on the model to accomplish higher education. The primary concerns entail components of the model which divide the task into significant tasks with explicit definition to detailing the frequency of deadlines through reinforcing other smaller tasks. The interventions which are put in place through the studies state the total amount of materials which needs to be covered to address the aspect for treating the level of procrastination. Primarily this can be elaborated through the provision of deadlines which requires daily practices on the quizzes to complete the incorporated reinforcement of the contingency for the studies.


Cerino, E. S. (2014). Relationships Between Academic Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Procrastination. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research19(4).

Perrin, C. J., Miller, N., Haberlin, A. T., Ivy, J. W., Meindl, J. N., & Neef, N. A. (2011). MEASURING AND REDUCING COLLEGE STUDENTS’PROCRASTINATION. Journal of applied behavior analysis44(3), 463-474.

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